Diet Chart

APPROXIMATE FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF COMMON FATS AND OILS (g/100 g.)


  Item

Saturated

Mono Un-Saturated

Linolenic

Alpha Linolenic

Predominant fatty acids

 

 Coconut

90

7

2

<0.5

Saturated

 

 Palm Kernel

82

15

2

<0.5

Saturated

 

 Ghee

65

32

2

<1.0

Saturated

 

 Vanaspati

24

19

3

<0.5

Saturated

 

 Red palm oil  (Raw)

50

40

9

<0.5

Saturated + Mono unsaturated

 

 Palm oil

45

44

10

<0.5

Saturated + Mono unsaturated

 

 Olive

13

76

10

<0.5

Mono unsaturated

 

 Groundnut

24

50

25

<0.5

Mono unsaturated

 

 Rape/Mustard

8

70

12

10

Mono unsaturated

 

 Sesame

15

42

42

1.0

Mono and poly Unsaturated

 

 Rice bran

22

41

35

1.5

Mono and poly Unsaturated

 

 Cotton seed

22

25

52

1.0

Poly unsaturated

 

 Corn

12

32

55

1.0

Poly unsaturated

 

 Sunflower

13

27

60

<0.5

Poly unsaturated

 

 Safflower

13

17

70

<0.5

Poly unsaturated

 

 Soybean

15

27

53

5.0

Poly unsaturated

 

Table – 9 FATTY ACID COMPOSITION AND CHOLESTEROL CONTENT OF ANIMAL FOODS (g/100 g. Edible Portion)


   Item

Fat g/ 100g. 

Saturated  Fatty acids

Cholestrol Mg / 100 g.

 

 Butter

80

50

250

 

 Ghee

100

65

300

 

 Milk (cow)

4

2

14

 

 Milk (buffalo)

8

4

16

 

 Milk (skimmed)

0.1

-

2

 

 Milk (condensed)

10

6

40

 

 Cream

13

8

40

 

 Cheese

25

15

100

 

 Egg (whole)

11

4

400

 

 Egg yolk

30

9

1120

 

 Chicken without skin

4

1

60

 

 Chicken with skin

18

6

100

 

 Beef

16

8

70

 

 Mutton

13

7

65

 

 Pork

35

13

90

 

 Organ meats

     
 

 Brain

6

2

2000

 

 Heart

5

2

150

 

 Kidney

2

1

370

 

 Liver

9

3

300

 

 Fresh water & Sea foods

     
 

 Prawns/shrimps

2

0.3

150

 

 Fish (lean)

1.5

0.4

45

 

 Fish (fatty)

6

2.5

45

 

Table – 10 RICH SOURCES OF ALPHA – LINOLENIC ACID


   Cereals and Millets  

 Wheat, Bajra

 

 Pulses and legumes 

 

 Black gram, cowpea (lobia), rajmah, soya

 

 Vegetables

 

 Green leafy

 

 Spices

 

 Fenugreek (methi), mustard (rai)

 

 Oils

 

 Mustard, soybean

 

 Animal foods

 

 Fish

 

HOW TO REDUCE FAT AND MAINTAIN QUALITY


Facts on fats
1. Fats are necessary but excess is dangerous
2. Saturated fats (visible) and the invisible fats present in animal foods increase blood cholesterol and blood clotting.
3. Trans fatty acids increase blood cholesterol.
Select low fat milk, limit/ avoid cheese, all types of meats, butter, and ghee and hydrogenated oils.

Limit/avoid hydrogenated oils.
4. Vegetables oils and all plant foods do not have cholesterol Monounsaturated fats decrease blood cholesterol Polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) decrease blood cholesterol and suppress clot formation in blood.
5. The ratio of saturated to polyunsaturated fats should be roughly 0.8 to 1.0.
6. A good balance of linoleic (n-6) and alpha-linolenic (n-3) acids is essential.
7. Long chain n-3 PUFA found in fish and fish oils lower blood cholesterol, triglycerides and prevent clot formation. They also lower blood pressure and have several other beneficial effects.

Ensure Right Quantity and Quality Moderate the total fat intake Limit visible fat and cut down invisible fat from animal foods.
8. Carbohydrates, particularly refined sugars, increase triglycerides.
9. Certain types of dietary fibres decrease cholesterol and triglycerides
This can be achieved by a judicious combination of cereals, pulses, vegetables, milk and vegetable oils. Use of mustard oil or soybean oil along with other oil(s) will help to achieve this. Also eat plant foods that are good sources of alpha-linolenic acid. (Table – 10) Those who like fish should take 100 – 200 g. twice a week. For those who do not like fish, guideline 6 should suffice Prefer natural foods, and reduce sugars. Cereals, pulses, vegetables and fruits are rich sources of soluble fibers, besides furnishing some fat of good quality.
 

Table – 11 TOTAL FIBRE CONTENT OF COMMON FOODS (g/100 g.)


   High (> 10)  Medium (1 to 10)  Low (< 1)  Nil
 

 Wheat
 Jowar
 Bajra
 Ragi
 Maize
 Legumes
 Dhals
 Fenugreek

 Rice
 Most vegetables
 Most Furits
 Coconut
 Seasame (til)

 Refined
 and processed
 Foods

 Sugar
 Fats/oils
 Milk
 All types of meat

 

PREPARATIONS HIGH IN ADDED SALT


- Pickles, chutneys, sauce and Ketchups
- Papads, chips and salted biscuits
- Savoury items
- Cheese and salt butter
- Canned vegetables
- Readymade soup packets
- Dried salted fish
 

CALORIE COST OF VARIOUS ACTIVITIES FOR 60 Kg. PERSON


  Activity

Energy expenditure(BMR Multiple Factory)

 

Sleeping, Resting, Relaxing in bed

1

 

Sitting (watching T.V.), Eating, Listening, Writing, Reading, Talking

1.5

 

Standing, Washing face, Brushing teeth, Toiletting, Shaving, Combing, Cooking, Feeding/dressing the child, Knitting, Sitting (office work)

2.3

 

Watering plants, Social walking (4 km/hr.), Driving, Dressing, Bathing, Marketing, Sewing (machines, Dusting, Feeding Pets

2.8

 

Sweeping, Window washing, Washing vessels, Bathing children, Mopping, Washing clothes, Other house chores

3.3

 

Baseball, Golf, Volleyball, Cycling, Table tennis, Brisk walking, Lift weight (bucket full load), Walking upstairs, Gardening

4.8

 

Mining, Carpenting, House building, Wood cutting, Plumbing, Walking upstairs (with load), Grass cutting, Harvesting

5.6

 

Dancing, Gymnastics, Swimming, Horse riding, Digging

6

 

Tournament, Tree cutting, Jogging, Running, Skipping, Hiking, Mountain climbing

7.8

 

NATURE'S PRESCRIPTIONS FOR A HEALTHY HEART


- EAT TO LIVE, DO NOT LIVE TO EAT
MAINTAIN A DESIRABLE BODY WEIGHT.

- CLEAN UP THE OILY MESS.
REDUCE TOTAL FAT AND SATURATED FAT. AVOID CHOLESTEROL, AND USE VEGETABLE OILS IN MODERATION.

- HE WHO FOLLOWS NATURE IS NEVER OUT OF THE WAY.
EAT NATURAL FOODS AS GROWN, LIKE COARSE GRAINS, WHOLE – GRAIN CEREALS AND PULSES AND VEGETABLES. AVOID REFEINED FOODS, PROCESSED FOODS AND SUGAR.

- NATURE IS BOUNTIFUL, AO STAY CLOSE TO IT.
EAT MORE FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES. IF YOU LIKE FISH, EAT 2-3 TIMES A WEEK.

- A LITTLE SALT IS DIVINE, BUT TOO MUCH IS HARMFUL.
CUT DOWN SALT USE, EAT FOODS IN NATURAL STATE. KEEP THE SALT INTAKE LOW.

- THERE IS A DEVIL IN EVERY BERRY OF THE GRAPE.
AVOID ALCOHOL.

- DON'T GET REDUCED TO ASHES.
DON'T SMOKE.

- THE WISE DEPEND ON EXERCISE FOR FITNESS.
TAKE TO REGULAR EXERCISE.

- HOPE FOR THE BEST AND DON'T DRIVE YOURSELVES TO DEATH.
GET TO KNOW THE SOURCE OF YOUR STRESS. AND AVOID IT. RELAX!

- NUTRIENT GUIDELINES FOR PREVENTION OF HEART DISEASES

- CALORIES SHOULD BE SUFFICIENT TO MAINTAIN APPROPRIATE BODY WEIGHT FOR A GIVEN HEIGHT

- TOTAL FAT INTAKE SHOULD BE BETWEEN 15-30% OF TOTAL CALORIES.

- CHOLESTEROL SHOULD NOT EXCEED 300 mg/day IN THE DIET . A CHOLESTEROL FREE DIET IS PERFERABLE.

- SATURATED FAT(S) SHOULD BE LESS THAN 10% OF TOTLA CALORIES.

- POLYUNSATURATED FAT (P) SHOULD NOT EXCEED 8% OF TOTAL CALORIES.

- P/S RATIO SHOULD BE BETWEEN 0.8-1.0.

- LINOLEIC ACID (LA) SHOULD RANGE BETWEEN 3-7% OF CALORIES.

- ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID (ALNA) SHOULD NOT BE LESS THAN 1% OF CALORIES.

- LA/ALNA RATIO SHOULD BE BETWEEN 5-10.

- PROTIENS SHOULD PROVIDE AROUND 10-15% OF CALORIES.

- CARBOHYDRATES SHOULD CONSTITUTE 55-65% OF CALORIES WITH EMPHASIS ON COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES.

- SUGARS SHOULD BE LESS THAN 10% OF TOTAL CALORIES AND SHOULD BE KEPT TO A MINIMUM.

- SALT INTAKE SHOULD BE BETWEEN 5-7 g/day.

- DIETARY FIBRE SHOULD BE AROUND 40 g/day.
  Foods   Prefer Limit Avoid
 

Cereals

 

Wheat, Rice Ragi, Bajra, Maize, Jowar

Foods prepared, with maida like, White Bread and Biscuits

Cakes Pastries, Naan roti, Roomali roti, Noodles.

 

Pulses

 

Whole & sprouted and dhals

---

---

 

Vegetables

 

Green leafy vegetables And other vegetables

Roots and Tubers

Fried vegetables, Banana chips, Canned veget- ables

 

Fruits

 

Fresh fruits

---

dried fruits, Canned fruits in syrup.

 

Dairy products

 

Low fat milk, buttermilk, Skimmed milk.

Whole milk, Milk powders.

Cheese, Butter, Khoa, Condensed Milk, Milk cream

 

Eggs

 

Egg white

---

egg yolk

 

Animal Foods

 

Fish

Chicken

Prawns, Shrimps, All types of meat.

 

Fat

 

More than one type of Vegetable oil

Total fat intake

Oily dishes, Butter, Ghee, Coconut oil, Vansapati Deep - Fried foods

 

Sugar & sugar Products

 

Sugar, Jaggery

Sugar in any home-made beverages

Sweets like Chocolates, Ice creams.

 

Nuts & oilseeds

 

---

All Nuts & Oil Seeds

---

 

Beverages

 

Fresh fruit juice (without sugar), light tea

Coffee, Cola, Soft drinks

Alcohol

 

Salt

 

Foods in natural state

Too much salt in Preparations

Pickles, Papads, Sauces, Salt Biscuits, Fried Crispies